On your quest to become pregnant, you’ll come across a tonne of new scientific terms and phrases. They’re not as difficult as they sound. We’ll learn more about various fertility and infertility treatment terms and how they function as the medical term “infertility” is a little challenging for normal individuals to grasp.
Basic Infertility Treatment Terms
Agglutination: It is the term used to describe the clumping of any particles, including sperm at times.
Amenorrhea: A disorder known as amenorrhea causes a woman to not have monthly periods.
Anovulation: When a woman ovulates infrequently or not at all.
Antisperm Antibody Test: This test can reveal whether antibodies on sperm’s surface are preventing sperm from moving, penetrating the cervical mucus, or fertilising an egg.
Assisted Hatching (AH):Each embryo is surrounded by a tiny opening that acts as a “shell”. We can help the embryo “hatch” from its “shell” during assisted hatching by making a tiny fissure in the zona pellucida. Before embryo transfer in IVF cycles, embryologists perform this in a lab setting.
Artificial Insemination: The process of inserting sperm directly into a woman’s cervix, fallopian tubes, or uterus is known as artificial insemination.
Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART): IVF, GIFT, ZIFT, and ICSI are examples of infertility treatments (including both egg and sperm) that fall under the category of assisted reproduction technology (ART).
Basal Body Temperature: This is the body’s resting temperature, which is often lower. Ovulation may be indicated by a modest rise in basal body temperature.
Cervical Mucus: The discharge into the cervix is known as cervical mucus. In each stage of the cycle, it will change.
Chemical Pregnancy: A pregnancy test results in being positive. Low beta hCG levels and a reduction in future development are present in this pregnancy.
Clomid: Women are given the fertility medication Clomid to encourage ovulation.
COH (Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation): During COH, which often occurs during IVF, the patient’s female ovaries are stimulated with medications in order to promote the creation of many oocytes (eggs).
Cryopreservation: The term “cryopreservation” relates to freezing. The procedure of freezing eggs, embryos, or even sperm for later use is known as cryopreservation.
Ectopic Pregnancy: Ectopic pregnancy refers to a pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterus as opposed to inside. Usually, this takes place in the abdominal cavity, ovaries, or fallopian tubes. Surgery may be necessary for ectopic pregnancies.
Egg Retrieval: Oocytes are removed from the ovaries during the egg retrieval procedure, which is often a component of IVF. This is frequently carried out using ultrasonic imaging.
Embryo Transfer: When the embryo’s early development and fertilisation take place outside of the body, the embryo is returned to the uterus, where it should result in pregnancy.
Endometrial Biopsy: This procedure includes taking a sample of the uterine lining and analysing it. Typically, it is done to confirm ovulation.
Endometriosis: Every month during menstruation, the uterus loses a lining that forms on its inner walls. This tissue lining begins to develop outside the uterus in endometriosis, a disease. A person may have discomfort, challenges with their ability to conceive, and other health issues depending on the location and degree of this development.
Estrogen: A collection of hormones generated mostly in the ovaries is known as oestrogen, sometimes spelt oestrogen. They are crucial for the maintenance of the female reproductive system as well as the development of secondary feminine traits.
Fallopian Tube: Fallopian tubes are the tubes that emerge from the uterus and go to the ovaries in either direction. Natural fertilisation takes place there as well.
Follicles: The female body contains eggs, or oocytes, in fluid-filled sacs. Follicles are the name of these sacs. The ovaries have many follicles, and each month, one egg is released from each of them.
FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone): The hormone known as FSH is involved in both the male and female reproductive systems. It helps in the development of eggs in women while being linked to sperm production in males.
Gonadotropins: Gonadotropins are sex gland-stimulating hormones. These may be injected into a patient as part of infertility therapy to boost reproductive processes.
hCG:Early pregnancy hormone known as hCG that is used to assess the viability of the gestation. Additionally, this hormone is injected into the body to trigger ovulation and the maturation of the oocyte (egg).
Hysterosalpingogram(HSG): The hysterosalpingogram, often referred to as uterosalpingography, is an X-ray procedure used to detect obstructions in the fallopian tubes and uterus. Through the vagina, a dye is injected into the uterus. Unless there is an obstruction, it should flow out of the fallopian tubes.
Hysteroscopy: A tiny tube with telescope-like equipment is introduced through the cervix to observe the uterus’ inside.
Implantation: An embryo must cling to the uterine wall in order to grow into a child. It is the means through which it nourishes and develops. Implantation refers to the process of the embryo becoming embedded in the uterus.
ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection): It involves the deliberate injection of a carefully chosen sperm into an egg to enhance the chances of fertilization. This method is particularly useful when dealing with poor sperm health.
IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation): IVF, which translates to “within the glass” in Latin, is a fertilization process performed outside the body, specifically in a laboratory, as opposed to the natural fertilization that occurs within the body.
IUI (Intrauterine Insemination): It is a form of artificial insemination in which sperm is directly introduced into the uterus with the aim of enhancing the likelihood of fertilization.
Laparoscopy: A medical procedure where a laparoscope, a slender telescope-like instrument, is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen.
Luteinizing Hormone: A hormone responsible for triggering ovulation.
Luteal Phase: The latter half of the menstrual cycle.
Male Factor Infertility: When problems in the man contribute to infertility issues in a couple or worsen existing fertility problems in the woman.
Motility: This term is commonly associated with sperm and pertains to the movement of sperm.
Multiple Gestation: This refers to the occurrence of multiple pregnancies in a woman during a single term. These pregnancies may or may not result in live births.
Ovulation Induction: As part of infertility treatments, hormones and medications may be utilized to stimulate the growth and release of eggs from the ovaries.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, an imbalance in the sex hormones can lead to menstruation irregularities, changes in the skin and hair, obesity, infertility, and other long-term health issues. The term derives from the many tiny cysts that border the ovaries of the majority of affected women.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): It is a method for determining the genetic or chromosomal information of an embryo, which is then returned to a patient’s womb after testing.
Retrograde Ejaculation: During ejaculation, semen enters the bladder instead of being expelled from the penis, causing this condition.
Secondary Infertility: This condition describes a situation where a woman has previously conceived one or more pregnancies but is currently unable to do so.
Semen Analysis: Semen analysis is a common test to determine the quantity, morphology, and motility of sperm in a man’s semen.
Testicular/Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (TESA): Surgically using a needle for aspiration, doctors remove sperm from the testis or the epididymis. This process is employed for males who lack sperm. ICSI is necessary to guarantee oocyte (egg) fertilisation when using sperm acquired by TESA.
Ultrasound: High frequency sound waves that are safe, painless, and radiation-free when employed. This exam enables us to see the interior organs of the body, particularly utilizing ultrasound to visualize female reproductive organs and pregnancy.
Unexplained Infertility: In certain cases, no specific cause or reason for infertility can be identified.
Uterus: The female reproductive organ known as the uterus, also called the womb, protects and feeds the growing embryo and fetus.
Zygote: A fertilised egg’s first stage of development.
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT): This assisted reproductive method, which is similar to IVF, entails taking sperm and eggs out of the body, combining them, and then placing the fertilised eggs into the fallopian tubes.